Chemical Resistance Guide

Introduction

Polipol unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) and Polives epoxy vinyl ester resins were carefully designed and produced by Poliya. They present exceptional corrosion-resistant performance and fulfill critical requirements in Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) applications. This Chemical Resistance Guide provides reference information regarding the performance of Polipol and Polives resins under specific chemical environments and temperatures specifically for part designers and engineers of corrosion resistant GRP applications. The corrosion resistance data set forth in this guide is meant for theoretically ideal designs and correctly manufactured composite GRP parts.

Döküm Tipi

Product Range of GRP Applications

UPR / Unsaturated Polyester Resins

Polipol 3401 Orthophthalic, low-medium reactivity, unsaturated polyester resin. It is suitable for hand lay-up and spray-up production methods with quick and easy fiber wet out and low volumetric shrinkage.

Polipol 351 High quality orthophthalic based, medium-high reactivity, UPR for GRP parts production. Ideal for hygienic food contact surfaces. It is suitable for hand lamination, spray-up, and pultrusion production methods with its high HDT values and excellent mechanical properties.

Polipol 3872 Isophthalic based, medium-high reactivity, unsaturated polyester resin. Ideal for hygienic food contact surfaces. It is suitable for hand lay-up, spray-up, and pultrusion production methods with its high chemical resistance and hydrolitic stability as well as excellent mechanical properties.

Polipol 3801 Isophthalic based, high reactivity, unsaturated polyester resin which has good chemical resistance and high HDT values.

Polipol 381 Isophthalic acid/NPG based, highly reactive and high molecular weighted unsaturated polyester resin. Ideal for hygienic food contact surfaces. It is both chemical and UV resistant and has excellent mechanical properties as well as good adhesion qualities.

Polipol 391 Bisphenolic based, highly reactive and high molecular weighted unsaturated polyester resin which has very high chemical and thermal resistance as well as special BPA.

VE / Vinyl Ester Resins

Polives 701 Bisphenol-A epoxy based, medium-high reactivity, low viscosity vinyl ester resin. Ideal for hygienic food contact surfaces. They have hydrolitic stability and provide additional resistance to a wide spectrum of acids, alkalines, bleaches and solvents in many chemical applications.

Polives 711 Bisphenol-A epoxy based, medium-high reactivity vinyl ester resin. It offers hydrolitic stability and provide additional resistance to a wide spectrum of acids, alkalines, bleaches and solvents in many chemical applications. It also offers higher HDT values for high heat resistance applications and excellent mechanical properties.

Polives 710 Halogenated, brominated, fire retardant medium-high reactivity vinyl ester resin that offers a high degree of chemical resistance and toughness. It is a resin used when both chemical resistance and flame retardancy are required.

Polives 721 Epoxy novolac-based vinyl ester resins are designed to provide exceptional thermal and chemical resistance. It offers high resistance from solvents, acids and oxidizing substances (including chlorine). It's high retention of strength and toughness at higher temperatures makes it ideal for flue gas applications.

Introduction

Polipol unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) and Polives epoxy vinyl ester resins were carefully designed and produced by Poliya. They present exceptional corrosion-resistant performance and fulfill critical requirements in Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) applications.

This Chemical Resistance Guide provides reference information regarding the performance of Polipol and Polives resins under specific chemical environments and temperatures specifically for part designers and engineers of corrosion resistant GRP applications.

The corrosion resistance data set forth in this guide is meant for theoretically ideal designs and correctly manufactured composite GRP parts.

Optimal CRB Design
Chemical Resistance Barrier

When perfectly designed and executed, high caliber GRP parts and structures require a Chemical Resistance Barrier (CRB) thickness of 2,5-5,5 mm which is designed for contact with a specific chemical environment. CRB layers consist of:

① A first layer which is usually between 0,4-1,0mm thick, composed of 90-95% resin, is then reinforced by 1-2 surfacing veils (C-glass or Synthetic Veils).

② The second is a 2,0-4,5mm layer composed of 75% resin which has been reinforced with chopped strand mat (powder binder only).

③ Lastly, the CRB is backed with a structural lamination and is post cured which provides the mechanical rigidity and strength of the overall corrosion-resistant composite structure.

Due to numerous factors that affect the performance of a laminate which are beyond Poliya’s control, no warranty regarding the use of Polipol UPR and Polives epoxy vinyl ester resins will be made. The service conditions shown in this guide are within the known capabilities of Polipol unsaturated polyester resins and Polives epoxy vinyl ester resins when laminates are properly designed, fabricated, post cured and installed.

For the optimal designs of GRP equipment, Polives resins' users should refer to the appropriate industry standards and design guidelines. For more information, visit www.poliya.com.

How to Use this Chemical Resistance Guide

Contents

The listing of chemical environments contains the highest known temperature that GRP equipment which has been made with Polipol polyester and/or Polives vinyl ester resins have either displayed good service within industry or, have been tested in the field or in the laboratory with results that indicate model longevity of use.

The given temperatures are not necessarily the maximum service temperature. The temperature data in each column is applicable to the derivative of each of the base resin (e.g., Polives 701 resin applies to 701-TA, 701-T, etc.). In the chemical resistance tables, a dash or blank space simply indicates that no data was available at the time that temperature ratings were assigned.

Some chemical formulas are not represented in the table. You can find these formulas under the Complete Chemical Formulas sections (p.170) where reference codes (e.g. ref F1/R3) show which section the formulas can be found.

Some chemicals have more than one name. In such cases, look for the reference "see chemical x" in the table.

Food Contact
The following resins are safe for the manufacturing of hygienic food contact surfaces and equipment. (See R7).

  • Polipol 351
  • Polipol 3872
  • Polipol 381
  • Polives 701
  • Polijel 213

Regular Updates
This guide is updated on a regular basis with new data (new products, other temperatures or concentrations, etc.) Please make sure you have the latest version of this guide.

Request Information about Specific Chemical Resistance

To inquire about resin recommendations for corrosion resistant applications, please prepare the following information:

  • List the chemical nature of all products along with their corresponding concentrations for a process or a batch. Be sure to include even trace amounts.
  • Service temperatures, including maximum and upset temperatures (with corresponding duration).
  • State: liquid/gas/solid (and risk of phasing or condensation, if applicable).
  • Type of equipment (tank, pipe, lining, etc.).
  •  

    Annotations

  •  

    Information given here in the Chemical Resistance Guide Annotations is critical to ensure the longevity of GRP equipment. It is strongly recommended that they are followed.

  • NR

    Stands for “not recommended” at any temperature.

  • LS

    Stands for “limited service” (at least 3 days to 1 year at room temperature *maximum 40°C). Generally in these cases, the respective resins can be used for GRP that is exposed accidentally, and where cleaning and inspection are possible within 3 days. Usually sufficient for secondary containment.

  • R1

    Inside solubility limits in aqueous solution.

  • R2

    Request Safety Data Sheet from supplier to identify chemical.

  • R3

    Contact Poliya technical support lab for specific recommendations.

  • R4

    Make sure the solvent used in the solution is also suitable.

  • R5

    High purity acids may cause discoloration during first exposures, please contact Poliya for further explanation.

  • R6

    Using above recommended standard design temperature may require approval of the relevant authorities.

  • R7

    For food contact applications, local regulations may apply.

  • R8

    To maximize the service life post cure the GRP.

  • R9

    Preference for Novolac based resins.

  • R10

    For reactors, use Polives 701, 711 or 721 resins..

  • R11

    To increase service life, use a Benzoyl Peroxide/Amine curing system.

  • R12

    Only the highest known service temperature is given. It may be possible to use at higher temperatures.

  • R13

    Can be used up to the maximum stable temperature for product.

  • R14

    Use double synthetic veil in the chemical resistant barrier (CRB).

  • R15

    Use double surfacing veil and a minimum of 5mm chemical resistant barrier (CRB).

  • R16

    Use double C-veil in the chemical resistant barrier (CRB).

  • R17

    Use acid resistant glass in the corrosion liner and structural walls.

  • R18

    Use acid resistant glass in the CRB and structural walls if product will be used above 50°C.

  • R19

    To increase service life, increase chemical resistant barrier (CRB) thickness accordingly.

  • R20

    No condensation or coalescence, fumes.

Post curing

For service temperatures below 100°C: Post curing GRPs can possibly prolong their service life if the operating temperature is within 20°C of the Chemical Resistance Guide maximum temperature for the service. Post curing can also be beneficial for solvent applications with a temperature limit of 25-40°C.

For service temperatures above 100°C: Provided the resin's specific minimum barcol hardness values are reached before start up, post curing during service can possibly be sufficient.

For service in pure and neutral salt solutions: Generally, post curing may not be required, provided no acetone sensibility is shown and the resin's specific minimum barcol hardness values are reached before start up.

When using a BPO/ Amine curing system: Post curing is strongly recommended and should be done within two weeks of construction. The post cure conditions as detailed in DIN 18820 may be used for 701 and 711 at 80°C and for 721 resins at 100°C. Normally, 1 hour per mm thickness of the laminate (between 5 and 15 hours) is recommended.

Veil varieties

In general, both synthetic and glass veils are suitable for most chemical environments. However, Hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing chemical environments require the use of either synthetic or carbon veils. One veil layer will result in a final thickness of approximately 0,2-0,4mm. Both the thickness and the composition of the veil layer are equally important to the stability of the structure. Carbon veils show excellent resistance to many aggressive chemicals such as HF, HCl, NaOH but NOT NaOCl (Sodium Hypochlorite). Carbon veils can also be used to achieve conductive surfaces. An aperture synthetic veil (such as Nexus™ 100-10) offers extra thickness and is preferred to extend the service life of materials exposed to hot caustic solutions.

Special Conditions

Insufficient Information
When no data is available regarding the environment or exposure conditions or said conditions are outside the scope of this guide, a test laminate must be exposed to the actual or simulated conditions proposed before a final decision on resin suitability is made.

Coatings and Linings (reinforced and non-reinforced)
Each coating or lining will have their own specific thermal expansion properties which may limit operating temperatures. Consult with Poliya's technical service department or a company which specializes in lining and coating technologies.

For liquid environments, laminate linings can be more durable than other lining systems. In order to achieve the highest quality results, they should only be applied with hand lay-up and not by spray-up. Generally, if low or missing exotherm is observed during polymerization, that part should be post cured (see also Post curing). The thicker and better curing the lining, the higher the diffusion resistance and prolonged life expectancy can be expected from strongly diffusing environments such as HCl, HF, etc.

Hot Flue Gases
Take care to ensure the temperature resistance of a synthetic veil is sufficient when it is recommended for hot gas environments. Otherwise, a carbon veil should be used. Special measures must be taken to prevent sub-dew point conditions in the laminate if the environment contains water vapor and/or acids.

Intermittent Exposure or Spillage
If exposure is short term and limited to fumes or spills only, it is possible to achieve extended service life at temperatures considerably higher than those discussed and in chemical environments shown as NR (not recommended. Consult with Poliya's technical service department. A test of the actual or simulated conditions proposed is necessary before a final decision on resin suitability is made.

Synergetic Interactions
The information in this guide represents the performance of full GRP structures in contact with the stated chemical environment (unless otherwise indicated) and under continuous use. Certain combinations of chemicals and their reactions toward GRPs can be unpredictable. It is possible for some mixtures to be more aggressive toward GRPs than the individual components. Aggressively synergistic chemicals should receive special attention as their reactions cannot be predicted from the corrosion properties of the individual components. Therefore, chemical resistance may be negatively influenced by using the same equipment for alternating storage or transport of different products, particularly where these products have widely differing properties, such as acids and bases that chemically react with each other.

Safety Precautions

Using Polipol UPR and Polives VE resins and the auxiliary materials (solvents, accelerators, catalysts, etc.) require extreme safety precautions. The necessary precautions for handling and using unsaturated polyesters are similar and will therefore be familiar to trained personnel. SDS Safety Data Sheets on all Polipol and Polives resins and auxiliary materials are available for customers. Please read these documents in their entirety before use.

Notice

The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The information provided on this document are prepared with long term laboratory tests and our own experiences. However, since as a material supplier, Poliya does not exercise any control over the use of Polipol and Polives resins, no legal responsibility is accepted for such recommendations. The information is given with goodwill to act as a guide but not as a reference. Poliya is not responsible for any damages or the user errors which may occur from using this document and/or information.

It is highly recommended that you to conduct tests in your own working condition before using the product on your production line. Poliya shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained here in.

Modification Description

  • FR   Filled flame retardant
  • D*   Filled (*with filler content)
  • T Thixotropic (no sagging)
  • A Cobalt preaccelerated
  • ABP Amine preaccelerated
  • UV UV Curing
  • L   UV light stabilized
  •   I Lower viscosity
  •   V Higher viscosity
  •   LSE   LSE (low styrene emission)
  •   H* Gel time customized (at room temperature) * minutes
  • H40 Optimized for summer season. Gel time (at room temperature) 40 minutes.
  • H20 Optimized for winter season. Gel time (at room temperature) 20 minutes.
  •   COLOR   White or custom color options

Gelcoat Customizations
Polijel gelcoat table descriptions and modifications.

  • Spray Application (airless preferred)
  • Brush or Roller Application
  • Color Option: White colored
  • Color Option: Light colored (pastel)
  • Color Option: PRO colored

Production Quantity Depending on Process (parts/year)
Regardless of product dimension and complexity..

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